Form: seven part rondo: A(i)B(III)A(i)C(VI)A(i)B’(I)A(i) Coda(i)
A. a three eighth note anacrusis, then m. 1-17, key of i, C minor
a: m. 1-4, half cadence in V, G major
b: m. 5-8, perfect authentic cadence in i, C minor
a and b: create a contrasting period, m. 1-8
b’: fourth beat of m. 8-12, perfect authentic cadence in C minor, i. However, it is deceptive in quickly going to a C7 chord in the second beat of m. 12
suffix: m. 12-17: perfect authentic cadence in key of i, C minor
Motives associated with A:
eighth note- eighth note-half note- quarter note in m. 4-6, quarter note-whole note rhythm reversed in m. 12 and 14.
four eighth note rhythm-arpeggiation in left hand remains for nearly entire A, from m. 1-8, 11-15
Seven eighth note arpeggiation in m. 9-10
E flat-F-D-E flat-C rhythm (rhythm not quite exact repetition) and its contour in m. 1-2 is present in m. 7-8
quarter note-half note-half note-eight eighth notes rhythm present in m. 12-13, 14-15
Independent transition: m. 18-25, travels to the key of III, E flat major, enters new key with B65 at m. 24, if looking for cadences in this transition, imperfect authentic cadence may be seen in m. 20 in key of iv, F minor, and in m. 25 in key of III, E flat major, eliding with next phrase
B. m. 25-43, key of III, E flat major
c: m. 25-28, half cadence in key of III: V65, B flat 65
d: m. 29-36, one may see half cadence in key of III: V7, B flat 7, more likely and logical solution is m. 29-37, imperfect authentic cadence in key of III: I, E flat major, eliding to next phrase on first beat of m. 37.
e: m. 37-43, perfect authentic cadence in key of III: I, E flat major
f: fourth beat of m. 43-47, half cadence in key of III: V, B flat major
f’: fourth beat of m. 47-51, perfect authentic cadence in key of III: I, E flat major
c, d, e, f, f’: create something similar to phrase group, but conclusive cadence exists at m. 43
Elision with dependent transition at first beat of m. 51
Dependent transition: m. 51-61, travels to key of i, C minor, enters new key with G7 from m. 58-61, big half cadence to lead to i
A. m. third and a half beat of m. 61-78, key of i, C minor, exactly same as m. 1-17, with the same independent transition from m. 12-17
C. m. 79-120, key of VI, A flat major
g: third and a half beat of m. 78-82, half cadence in key of VI: V, E flat major
g’: m. 83-86, perfect authentic cadence in a very short change of key to V/VI,
E flat major
g, g’: create a parallel period
g’’: m.87-90, half cadence in key of VI: V, E flat major
g’’’: m. 91-94, perfect authentic cadence in a very short change of key to V/flat VI, E flat major
g’’, g’’’: create a parallel period
m. 95-98: one may possibly see as an extension of cadence of g’’’, which would make the cadence a half cadence in key of VI: V, E flat major. However, likely to be seen as independent transition, entering key of VI with E flat major in m. 98
g’’’’: second beat of m. 98-102, half cadence in key of VI: vii, G diminished
g’’’’’: m. 103-107, half cadence in key of i: V, G major
g’’’’, g’’’’’: do not really create period, as both end in half cadence, but they share motivic qualities, such as staccato eighth notes that shift from left hand in g’’’’ to the right hand in g’’’’’
independent transition: m. 107-120: huge half cadence to a G7 in m. 119 to lead to i, C minor, in the next A section
A. third and a half beat of m. 120-128, key of i, C minor
m. 120-128: only material of m. 1-8 repeated exactly
m. 129-134: dependent transition, sharing the themes and motives from A in m. 9-10, for example, ends in half cadence in I: V(7)
B’. m. 134-157, key of I, C major
c’: m. 134-137, half cadence in key of I: V65, G65
d’: m. 138-143, one may interpret as half cadence in key of I: V, G major, eliding with next phrase on first beat of m. 143, another may interpret imperfect authentic cadence in key of V, G major, also eliding with next phrase. However, key change is short
e’: m. 143-146, imperfect authentic cadence in key of I, C major, eliding with next phrase
e’’: m. 147-153, perfect authentic cadence in key of I, C major
f’’: fourth beat of m. 153-157, half cadence in key of I: G major
Dependent transition: fourth beat of m. 157-170, half cadence to lead to key of i, C minor, for the following A section, Beethoven deceives the audience into thinking an f’’’ would begin here, but it travels unexpectedly, becoming a dependent transition rather than another phrase.
A. m. 171-178, a repeat of material from m. 1-8
Coda: m. 178-210, perfect authentic cadence in key of i, C minor in m. 210, one may see the material in m. 178-182 (first beat of m. 182 only) as a b’’, a prime of m. 8-12, rather than coda material, although texture in m. 178-182 is quite different and more energetic and tension building than material from m. 8-12.
Please refer to the Structure Analysis for the phrase and motive structure of m. 1-17. Indeed, Beethoven deceives the audience and strays of the typical path of regular hypermeter and four bar phrases, etc. From m. 1-8, Beethoven follows the typical antecedent-consequent phrase-period structure and creates a contrasting period. However, a b’ is added from m. 9-12, repeating and extending the thematic material in the right hand of b (the eighth note-eighth note-half note- quarter note motif from m. 5-8) in the right hand of b’ in m. 9-12. Then, unexpectedly, Beethoven adds a suffix from m. 12-17, which ends in perfect authentic cadence in the tonic key in m. 17. Although m. 1-8 have regular hypermeter and four bar phrases, the peculiar length of the six measure suffix and the elision transitioning from b’ to the suffix in the first beat of m. 12 contribute to irregular hypermeter.
The form is seven part rondo with the following structure and key relations with roman numerals: A(i)B(III)A(i)C(VI)A(i)B’(I)A(i) coda(i). The III in B and VI in C are typical key changes in seven part rondos. Traveling to I for the B’ in a minor key is relatively uncommon however, and while traveling from a minor key to its parallel major is a large mood change, Beethoven gives the listeners a sense of having traveled farther than the piece actually did by his inclusion of the dependent transition in the fourth beat of m. 157-170 rather than bringing back what would be the expected f’’’.
The coda is energetic, dark and tension building to affirm the tonic key of C minor. Several motives from the third movement recur in the coda. First, the triplet eighth note motif from B (m. 37-40, for example) is present in m. 182-192, especially m.189-192. The fast rhythms of the triplet eighth note motif create fiery tension in the coda, especially in m. 189-192, aided by the crescendo and the staccatissimo left hand also in m. 189-192. Next, the four eighth note arpeggiation-rhythm motif of m. 1-7 are also present in m. 182-188 of the coda. Third, the descending scale and the final dominant chord rhythm and contour of m. 199-202 was also present in m. 117-120 and m. 58-61. Finally, the E flat-F-D-E flat-C rhythm (not quite exactly) and its contour in m. 1-2 are vitally present in the fourth beat of m. 202-206. Although the motives are used in the coda in a fashion that will build tension and create forward energy and motion, another key importance of using motives in the coda is to give the section a feeling of familiarity yet be different simultaneously, but not so different to be completely foreign to listeners. Large dynamic shifts (pianissimo to fortissimo in m. m. 206-208), sudden sforzandi (m. 187-188, m. 193-199), and pointed staccatissimos (m. 189-198) typical of Beethoven’s compositional are present and contribute to energy, tension, and forward motion in the coda.
First and foremost, performers should take care to be respectful of sforzandi, staccatissimos, and sudden and large dynamic shifts, for they are key to Beethoven’s style, as stated before. One key area to respect Beethoven’s markings is m. 202-210. The subtle change from piano (m. 202) to pianissimo (m. 206) should be treated as dark and mysterious, as the audience is completely unaware of what is going to happen next. Then, the performer should startle the audience with an angry fortissimo (208). Of course, the performer should appear physically subtle and mysterious with the piano and pianissimo and angry with the fortissimo just as he or she would do musically. Although it is not marked in the anthology score, a decrease in tempo and a sudden increase in tempo in m. 208 like the one done in the performance of the Theory Book’s CD is practical and logical to increase tension and let the subtlety of m. 205-208 sink into the audience and the fortissimo of m. 208 startle the audience even more. Next, unexpected changes and shifts from the typical seven part rondo phrase structure and expectations should be treated differently. For example, the transition from m. 158-170 is completely unexpected and should be filled with energy from the performer by pushing it forward. One could do so possibly by a crescendo from m. 158-166. Other examples of shifts from typical seven part rondo from is the b’ and suffix of A (fourth beat of m. 8-17). Finally, the dark mood of the third movement rondo is reminiscent of the first movement of this sonata. Therefore, the performer should attempt to play the third movement in a fashion that would let listeners be reminded of the dark mood of the first movement.